Ventricular septal defect là gì


A ventricular septal defect (pronounced ven·tric·u·lar sep·tal de·fect) (VSD) is a birth defect of the heart in which there is a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart. This wall also is called the ventricular septum.

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What is a Ventricular Septal Defect

A ventricular septal defect happens during pregnancy if the wall that forms between the two ventricles does not fully develop, leaving a hole. A ventricular septal defect is one type of congenital heart defect. Congenital means present at birth.

In a baby without a congenital heart defect, the right side of the heart pumps oxygen-poor blood from the heart khổng lồ the lungs, và the left side of the heart pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the toàn thân.

In babies with a ventricular septal defect, blood often flows from the left ventricle through the ventricular septal defect khổng lồ the right ventricle và inlớn the lungs. This extra blood being pumped into lớn the lungs forces the heart and lungs to lớn work harder. Over time, if not repaired, this defect can increase the risk for other complications, including heart failure, high blood pressure in the lungs (called pulmonary hypertension), irregular heart rhythms (called arrhythmia), or stroke.

Learn more about how the heart works »

Types of Ventricular Septal Defects


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An infant with a ventricular septal defect can have sầu one or more holes in different places of the septum. There are several names for these holes. Some comtháng locations và names are (see figure):

Perimembranous Ventricular Septal DefectThis is a hole in the upper section of the ventricular septum.Muscular Ventricular Septal DefectThis is a hole in the lower, muscular part of the ventricular septum and is the most common type of ventricular septal defect.


In a study in Atlanta, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( estimated that 42 of every 10,000 babies born had a ventricular septal defect.1 This means about 16,800 babies are born each year in the United States with a ventricular septal defect. In other words, about 1 in every 240 babies born in the United States each year are born with a ventricular septal defect.

Causes and Risk Factors

The causes of heart defects (such as a ventricular septal defect) among mỏi most babies are unknown. Some babies have heart defects because of changes in their genes or chromosomes. Heart defects also are thought khổng lồ be caused by a combination of genes and other risk factors, such as the things the mother comes in contact with in the environment or what the mother eats or drinks or the medicines the mother uses.

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Read more about’s work on causes và risk factors »


A ventricular septal defect usually is diagnosed after a baby is born.

The form size of the ventricular septal defect will influence what symptoms, if any, are present, and whether a doctor hears a heart murmur during a physical examination. Signs of a ventricular septal defect might be present at birth or might not appear until well after birth. If the hole is small, it usually will cthua kém on its own và the baby might not show any signs of the defect. However, if the hole is large, the baby might have sầu symptoms, including:

Shortness of breath,Fast or heavy breathing,Sweating,Tiredness while feeding, orPoor weight gain.

During a physical examination the doctor might hear a distinct whooshing sound, called a heart murmur. If the doctor hears a heart murmur or other signs are present, the doctor can request one or more tests to lớn confirm the diagnosis. The most common demo is an echocardiogram, which is an ultrasound of the heart that can show problems with the structure of the heart, show how large the hole is, và show how much blood is flowing through the hole.


Treatments for a ventricular septal defect depend on the kích thước of the hole & the problems it might cause. Many ventricular septal defects are small & cthua on their own; if the hole is small and not causing any symptoms, the doctor will check the infant regularly to ensure there are no signs of heart failure và that the hole closes on its own. If the hole does not cthảm bại on its own or if it is large, further actions might need khổng lồ be taken.

Depending on the kích thước of the hole, symptoms, and general health of the child, the doctor might recommover either cardiac catheterization or open-heart surgery to lớn cthất bại the hole & restore normal blood flow. After surgery, the doctor will set up regular follow-up visits lớn make sure that the ventricular septal defect remains closed. Most children who have sầu a ventricular septal defect that closes (either on its own or with surgery) live healthy lives.


Some children will need medicines to help strengthen the heart muscle, lower their blood pressure, & help the body get rid of extra fluid.


Some babies with a ventricular septal defect become tired while feeding and do not eat enough lớn gain weight. To make sure babies have a healthy weight gain, a special high-calorie formula might be prescribed. Some babies become extremely tired while feeding and might need to lớn be fed through a feeding tube.


Reller MD, Stricklvà MJ, Riehle-Colarusso T, Mahle WT, Correa A. Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects in Metropolitung Atlanta, 1998-2005. J Pediatr. 2008;153:807-13.

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